In the Renaissance, Italy is the protagonist of a profound renewal both in the artistic field and in that of “natural philosophy”, then called science.
Just think of the “dolce prospettiva” in painting and of the battle of Galileo Galilei to defend the Copernican system.
This did not always occur in a linear and peaceful manner. Evidence of this can be found in the scientific differences between Galileo and Kepler, who was not convinced that the existence of the tides could be proof of the rotational motions of the Earth around its axis and of its revolution around the Sun. Not to mention the pressures of the Roman Catholic Church on Galileo that was to culminate in the 1633 trial in Rome.
Obviously, this was only the beginning of a change in scientific practice, then powerfully re-evaluated by the Enlightenment.